Blog Description

Mound House Happenings shares the latest in ongoing projects, site improvements, scheduled programs and events, plus interesting facts and photos on our unique archaeology, history and ecology.

Mound House

Mound House
October 15, 2013

Friday, May 25, 2012

Kayak Launch Today

View this video taken today to view our Kayak Launch area! Bring your NON-motorized vessels and launch from our site for free. 

Our Mound Today

View this video taken today to view what our site looks like!

Friday, May 18, 2012

"Plants in Profile" #1 - #11

Many guests and volunteers have been asking for more information on the plants we have onsite here at Mound House. Luckily, Parke Lewis has been cataloging our plants for the last few months. Similar to the "Creature Features", he writes a brief summay each week that features one plant on site. To stay up to date, please look under the "Plants in Profile" tab to the left! You can find what he has written to date below:

#11 - CASSIA TREE (Cassia fistula)

As is often the case on the old homesteads here in Florida, the Mound House was built long before a pharmacy could be found on the island , and so some of the  beautiful landscaping trees found at our Mound House serve not only as decoration ,but at one time served as an important source of medicine. Such is the case with the cassia tree. Our cassia is found just as you arrive on the property and overlooks the parking lot. The dazzling yellow flowers appear as the branches are bare and just before new leaves emerge. The distinctive seed pods are over 2 feet long.
A native to India and the Amazon, the cassia has been used in traditional medicine to treat a vast array of ailments from, tumors to tuberculosis , malaria  and ulcers, syphilis, convulsions, leprosy and rheumatism.

Modern laboratory studies and clinical research do indeed find that cassia is an effective antioxidant, antibacterial, laxative, liver protective, anti-tumorous ,liver protective pain reliever, and fever reducer.

Cassia Tree

#10 - LANTANA (Lantana camara)
This  beautiful and useful plant can be found right outside our office door. The orange and yellow flowers serve as an exquisite landscaping and are a favorite of our butterflies here at Mound House. The flowers of the lantana vary from white to red to orange and provide an easily maintained landscaping on the shell mound.  But lantana  can also serve an even more important purpose, as mosquito repellant. In an experiment conducted by the Malaria Research Center in India, an application of  lantana flower extract to the skin provided  95% protection against mosquito bites for up to 4 hours, and with no adverse effects to humans.      


#9 - MARLBERRY (Ardisia escallonioides)

March is the season for Marlberry, and these shrubs can be found throughout the Mound House site heavy with dark berries that bend its limbs toward the ground. They can be found growing in the shade of our cabbage palms, and buttonwoods amongst our other coastal strand vegetation. Native to southwest Florida and the Keys, the Marlberry has an edible dark fruit that is rather tart and acidic, but palatable. It is also a favorite of birds and wildlife. Native Americans in south Florida called marlberry, the “ tobacco seasoning tree” because they mixed its leaves with their tobacco to make it go further.   


#8 - Pineapple (Ananas comosus )

Discovered on the island of Guadeloupe by Christopher Columbus during his second voyage to the New World in 1493, the pineapple first found its way to our shores in the 17th century ,when it was brought over from the Caribbean by European colonists. Given its exotic heritage and difficulty of procurement, the pineapple was considered a rare and significant gift when provided to guests. Accounts of New England sea captains returning from voyages to the Pacific or Caribbean placing a pineapple outside their homes as a symbol of a safe return testify to this fruits special place in our culture. Furthermore, the pineapple has a long history of being offered as the crowning piece in large displays of food and was used frequently in the 18th and 19th centuries to decorate bed posts, tablecloths, napkins and anything made to extend hospitality and welcome.
The pineapples growing at Mound House are the historic “ Florida pineapple”,  a smaller variety which was commercially grown in great quantities in Florida until the 1930’s when commercial production shifted to Cuba and Hawaii.      


#7 - CANNA LILY (Cannaceae sp.)

The canna is actually not a true lily and is actually in the same plant family as gingers and bannanas. The canna lilies have a large attractive foliage and beautiful flowers that are a favorite of gardeners throughout the tropics. Cana is a native of the Americas and is now found  distributed throughout the worlds warmer climates. More importantly, canna is one of the world’s most important agricultural plants and serves as an excellent starch source. In Asia, the canna is used to produce cellophane noodles. The seeds are used in beads and jewelery, and also can be turned into a source of purple dye.The smoke from  the burning leaves  serves as an effective insect repellant.

More recently, the canna is planted in wetlands and shallow retention areas or ditches to serve as a natural filtration system to capture heavy metals, toxic organic compounds and even radioactive elements.

Canna Lily

#6 - SEVEN YEAR APPLE (Casasia clustifolia)

This is one of botany’s more misleading plant names. The seven year apple does not take seven years for its fruit to mature and it is not even an apple. The fruit is hard like a small pear and  takes an entire year to mature. This small, tough tree grows along the coastline and is well adapted to salty conditions and can grow just inland from the mangrove fringe, just as it does here at Mound House. The fruit of the seven year apple was eaten by indigenous peoples as well as early settlers here in Florida. But ,the fruit is very seedy. Also a favorite food of the mockingbird ,our state bird. These dramatic song birds will descend on the ripe fruit and hollow it out ,leaving only the dead skin hanging in the tree. The delicate cluster of white flowers have a wonderful fragrance , making this tree an attractive landscape choice.        

Seven year apple

#5 - FLORIDA PRIVET (Forestiera segregata)

The privets are members of the olive family and this variety  is often referred  to as the wild olive or ink bush. This is a common plant found in coastal hammocks and is resistant to salt spray and alkaline soils ,both of which are prevalent here at Mound House. As an interesting aside, the soils on the Mound House property are alkaline due to the shells on the property which, or course, make up the mound. Our wild olives are found just inland from the mangrove fringe around the perimeter of the site. Wild olive are often used as native landscaping on coastal areas because of its ease of care ,attractiveness and appeal to wildlife.

The fruit of the wild olive is a small blue to purple berry about the size of a pea that is a favorite of  birds, and can be used to garnish “ Tini Martinis”, an island favorite.         

Florida Privet

#4 - BEAUTYBERRY (Callicarpa sp.)
The two most common species of beautyberry in Florida are the American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) which has a distinct reddish berry that grows in clusters at the leaf base on the stem,  and the purple beautyberry (Callicarpa dichotoma) which ,of course, has a purple berry and is a more compact shrub. Beautyberry is found in old growth forests and pine flatwoods  within the interior of Florida as well as on coastal strand hammocks and shell mounds. The beautyberry was harvested and eaten  by the Calusa and other native American tribes in Florida as well as by pioneer settlers.

It is a favorite of wildlife including songbirds, raccoons and deer and serves as a favorite out at the Mound House of our birds and particularly during the winter when numerous species make their way south to spend the cold months in coastal Florida.

Look for the bright red and purple berries in late fall and winter, growing amongst the native coastal strand vegetation on site.   


#3 - Horseradish Tree (Moringa oleifera)

Native to West Asia, the horseradish tree or “moringa”  as it is also known is now well established throughout the tropical Americas. Packed with vitamins, its leaves offer more calcium than milk and more vitamin C than oranges! The tree gets its name because the roots are used as a tasty substitute for horseradish ,the leaves, seeds and seedpods are served in numerous dishes and are a staple of Indian and South American cuisine. The moringa is commonly kept in those parts of the world as a hedged “door yard” plant and a living fence. The tree is drought resistant , hardy and is also planted to prevent erosion and to provide a food source and cash crop in areas of poor soil. Most interestingly, the horseradish tree has a natural chemical composition that gives it a slight positive electric charge. Silt ,bacteria and other pollutants suspended in water have a slightly negative charge. As such, a single seed can purify a gallon of water, and stripped limbs are placed in polluted wells to help purify drinking water.        

Horseradish Tree

#2 - ANNATTO (Bixa orellana)

Also known as the “lipstick tree” ,this native of the Amazon produces the vibrant orangish  red coloring found in many traditional dishes as well as in the distinctive body paint and vibrant red and orange hair dyes of many Central and South American Indians. It is used to color fabric and as a healthy natural source of food coloring. Its uses as a natural coloring in cosmetics has  given rise to its current nickname . For traditional medicinal purposes, the annatto is used to treat dysentery, as an antiseptic and to reduce fever.  The seed pods are green and covered in spiky but soft flexible spines that are harmless. When opened, the pod reveals rows of tiny red seeds with a brightly pigmented coating.


#1 - KAPOK TREE (Ceiba pentandra)

Also known as the silk cotton tree, the kapok is native to South America. The Mayans believed that this tree was the “tree of life” and that its roots extended into the underworld and that its branches held up the heavens. The kapok can reach heights of up to 150’ and live for hundreds of years. Young trees, such as the ones at Mound House, develop sharp conical spines around the trunk and these serve to protect the tree against animals. As the trees age, these conical spines wear away and drop off.
However, it is the seed pods for which these trees are most famously known. The six inch round seed pod is filled brown seeds and a fine white, cotton like fiber which is eight times lighter than cotton and five times more buoyant than cork.
In the days before synthetic materials were developed, life vests were stuffed with this durable floatation source and life jackets were known as “kapoks”. Today,in some parts of the world, these fine fibers are still harvested to stuff mattresses and pillows .In colonial times, slaves brought to the Caribbean often slept on mattresses or pillows stuffed with kapok. Oddly enough, European planters did not, for they believed sleeping on kapok caused nightmares.      



"Creature Features" #1 - #11

Each week, Parke will write a quick summary of a special creature typically found during his Guided Beachwalk's on Wednesday mornings. Please check under the "Creature Features" tab to the left to stay updated! Below is what he has written so far:

#11 - ATLANTIC WHITE SLIPPER SHELL (Crepidula fornicata)

The Atlantic white slipper shell is a one sided shell with an arched back and a concave shape. They are white with brown markings and up to about an inch and a half in size when full grown.
These shells attach themselves to a hard object in the water (including other shells, or even each other!). They spend their lives in one place and are filter feeders. The creatures’ foot is on the underside of the shell and this is what it attaches itself with in a suction cup fashion. Also on the bottom of the shell is a shelf that extends about halfway up the length of the shell, thus giving them a resemblance to a house slipper.

Slipper Shell

#10 - MOLE CRAB (Emerita sp.)

“What was that?”

If you wade along the beach, right there along the edge of the surf where the waves roll and recede, you may notice, for the briefest of moments, these tiny sand colored creatures, less than an inch long, scurrying away before you, or disappearing under the sand in a flash as they dig themselves in before the next wave washes ashore. The mole crab, or “sand fleas” as they are known around here, are a small but very important crustacean that lives under  the surface, in the wash zone of our beaches.
They must move quickly to survive and escape detection by predators or be washed away and left helpless, in the next wave. As such,Its body is barrel shaped ,and the legs tuck up tightly under the shell to allow the mole crab to quickly dig under the surface and to be able to roll with the waves when on the surface. They live for a year or two, using its antennae to filter feed the detritus and microorganisms that wash back and forth in the surf. In turn, the mole crab is a favorite food of fish ,such as the pompano, sand trout and whiting that feed along our shores. They are targeted by our wading birds such as  ibis, sandpiper, and the reddish egret. In addition, the mole crab is a favorite food of his larger cousin, the ghost crab, who feeds in the surf zone at night. As such ,they are the bridge in the food chain between the microbes and organic detritus that wash ashore and the larger predators  waiting for them on the beach, or just offshore.
Life is tough in the surf zone.    

#9 - LEAST TERN (Sterna antillarum)

The least tern has long pointed wings and a deeply forked tail. It is the smallest of our terns. The adult is gray above ,white below and has a distinct black cap. The least tern is listed as a “threatened” species by the State of Florida.This is due to extensive development of their beach habitat and nesting disturbance from humans as well as pets. Least tern winter in Latin America and nest farther north in the spring, laying eggs in shallow depressions in the sand. As such they are very susceptible to predation and disturbance. At many nesting areas, including those found on Fort Myers Beach, signs and roped off areas warn against disturbing nesting birds.
The least tern feeds on small fish and can often be found just off the beach diving into schools of anchovies or juvenile sardines and herring. Sometimes , terns will dive right next to, or even over, other larger feeding sea birds to get at their prey.   

Least Tern

#8 - RED MANGROVE (Rhizophora  mangle)

While you don’t find mangrove trees growing on the beach unless they are in a protected embayment, the long pen like objects that children find on the beach and use to write in the sand are the seedlings of the red mangrove. These seedlings are known as “propagules”. The mature seedlings drop into the water from the parent tree where they are carried by tides and currents. As the seedlings float, they absorb water at one end and become bottom heavy. If its voyage ends on a mudflat or calm shoreline, the seedling attaches to the substrate by sending out roots. It will sprout leaves at the other end and eventually become a tree.

In the late summer there are thousands of these propagules washed up on our beaches and some remain well into winter, but the dynamic surf of the beachfront prevents them from taking root. As they die, these propagules decompose providing food for the microorganisms that become the food for the filter feeders such as coquinas, conchs  and clams along the shore who in turn become food themselves for the  fish and crabs just offshore, who are ultimately the prey of the dolphins and fishermen just offshore. It is within this narrow band of beach, from high tide wrack line to the shallows of the sand bar that we find an entire interdependent ecosystem within the width of a few yards, functional in large part to mangrove seedlings that will never become trees.   

Red Mangrove

#7 - MOON SNAIL (Euspira heros )

Also called the “shark’s eye” , these mollusks have a spiraling round shape and come in varying colors from pastels in grey and brown to blue. Moon snails are found on sandy beaches and live subtidally. They are often found washed ashore after a heavy surf or on a very low tide. They burrow beneath the sand and are often passed over, unseen by beach combers. Those washed ashore are a favorite prey of gulls and other shore birds and even a prized delicacy served in European restaurants. These burrowing creatures hunt other mollusks including clams ,mussels and even other moon snails. The moon snail has a sharpened mouth part called a radula that they use to drill a hole into the shell of their prey. The radula is like a tongue with raspy teeth. As they drill, the moon snail excretes an acid that softens and dissolves the shell of its victim as it drills. Then, the moon snail devours its prey. Shells which have been targeted by the moon snail have a distinctive counter sunk  circular hole drilled through them, and are ready made for stringing onto a bracelet or necklace, making the moon snail  the official “ beach jeweler”.   

Moon Snail

#6 - ROUGH PEN SHELL ( Family Pinnidae)
The rough pen shell derives its name from the old  quill or “pen” that it resembles. Its surface is rough and spiny, often covered in barnacles from where the open top of this clam emerges from the substrate.

The pen shell is anchored by threads called byssus ,that resemble roots. Some members of the pinnidae family are harvested for this fine thread which is used to make sea silk. In the Mediterranean , very high quality sea silk , has been used for over 3,000 years to make robes, gloves, scarves, stockings and other apparel. Items made from sea silk have an attractive golden hue and these items were greatly valued by ancient cultures. 

Pen shells are also harvested throughout the world for food and were consumed by the Calusa, our islands first inhabitants. Pen shells have a tender consistency and delicate, delicious flavor not unlike a scallop.(But remember, it is unlawful to harvest live shells on Fort Myers Beach!) In addition, the inside of the shells have a beautiful silvery iridescent interior  and these are carved by artisans and shaped into pendants and jewelry, and even plates.       

Rough Pen Shell
#5 - GHOST CRAB (Ocypode quadrata)

The name “ghost crab” derives from their sandy pale coloration and  prefence for nocturnal activities. During the day, these reclusive 4” to 6” crabs can usually be found deep in their elaborately costructed burrows, sometimes extending 3’ or more underground ,including a terminal chamber and often with a second entrance . These burrows are located well above the high water line and in the sand dunes along our beach. Ghost crabs usually emerge at night to feed on a wide range of items including debris in the wrack line, and coquina clams. As a land crab, they must return to the water occassionally to wet their gills or to spawn, but spend most of their time on dry land.

On of the most remarkable traits of the ghost crab is his speed. When walking ,the ghost crab uses all four pairs of legs ,but runs using only the fist and second pairs of legs,lifting the other two pairs above the ground,and as such appears to be hovering above the sand as he scurries along, a ghostly apparition.     

Ghost Crab

#4 -  THE PARCHMENT WORM (Chaeopterus sp.)

After the high surf of a storm or a day of onshore winds, the wrack line of debris is piled high and far up on our beach. And there in the jumble of seaweed, mixed amongst the starfish and pen shells is here we’ll frequently find the empty homes of the parchment worm. Usually about a foot in length and resembling a tube of wet paper bag, or parchment, these are the tough but light empty husks left by the parchment worm. Living under the substrate off shore, the parchment worms create this underwater “home in a tube” with an opening to the surface at each end. The parchment worm uses its wing like legs to fan water through the tube and trapping the algal particles on which it feeds.

By the time these displaced homes have washed ashore, the parchment worm is usually gone, having fallen prey to the fish, crabs and shorebirds that feed on them. As such, the parchment worm serves a valuable function in the beach ecosystem, feeding on algae and in turn providing a valuable food  source for predators. In time, the decaying husks of the parchment worm as well as the other detritus that washes ashore, will breakdown and decay, serving in turn as food for beach microorganisms.  

Parchment Worm
#3 - THE FLORIDA FIGHTING CONCH (Strombus alatus) 

As the tides recedes and our intertidal shallows  and  sandbars are exposed, the fighting conch make his appearance , using  the long pointed operculum (the “door” of the shell) these three to four inch conchs emerge from the sandy bottom and can often be seen making their way back to the water. The fighting conch is easily identified by his thick shell with a spiraled point ,blunt spines, and golden tan to caramel coloring. The beaches and sandbars of Estero Island are the perfect habitat for these conchs. Often, beachcombers walking the sandbars at low tide will encounter hundreds of fighting conchs emerging from the sandy bottom after the waves have receded . Despite the name, the fighting conch is a mellow vegetarian, feeding on algae and other plant life on the sandy bottom and thus serving an important role in our beach ecosystem . The distinct name comes from the fighting conchs rapid kicks with which it uses the operculum as a hook to drag itself along and draw the operculum shut to protect themselves from predators and to await the rising tide.        

Florida Fighting Conch

#2 - SEA PORK (Family Ascidiacea)

Finding a glistening piece of sea pork washed ashore may leave you thinking you’ve found just a piece of some other creature, resembling a piece of waterlogged pork or fatback (yummy!) This “blob” is actually a living creature, a very complex colony composed of thousands of tiny zooids wrapped in a cellulose housing, each in its own tiny sack like body. This celluloid housing is called a “ tunic” and protects the colony. You will find two external openings near each other that serve to circulate sea water through the sea pork in which nutrients are filtered out as food . Sea pork lives on the bottom and attaches itself to rocks, pilings, jetties or seaweed and is washed ashore by storms and high surf. Bottom feeders such as skates, and even some species of sharks, are known to eat sea pork. There are over 1,000 species of Ascidians worldwide, with numerous species of varying colors including red, yellow ,white , greenish-blue, and even purple appearing on our shores.

Sea Pork

Wednesday, May 16, 2012



A pair of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) has taken up residence at Mound House and have been seen dining on insects throughout the property, particularly at our jacaranda by the underground exhibit and our ancient strangler fig. In fact, they may even be building a nest cavity somewhere on site, so keep an eye out, its nesting season.

The pileated woodpecker is the largest woodpecker in the United States. They are mainly black with a red crest with distinctive white cheeks and white stripes on the throat. They feed mainly on insects, but also dine on fruits and berries. These woodpeckers like mature forests and wooded parks, such as our Mound House site. Theses woodpeckers carve out a rectangular hole in trees, searching for insects and for nest building. Pileated woodpeckers serve an important function for other birds. The abandoned nests and foraging cavities of woodpeckers serve as homes for many species of forest song birds.
Typical Pileated Woodpecker

Mound House Pileated Woodpecker

Underground Exhibit Artifact Replicas


Visitors to the underground exhibit have an opportunity to view ,and even hold, some of the Calusa artifact replicas that have been discovered by archaeologists. These replicas help visitors better understand the art and technical skill of the Calusa. Some of the items on display in our underground exhibit are shown below:      
Lightning Whelk Gorget

A gorget with a cross in the center was discovered at the Key Marco site. It is estimated to have been made between 1200-1500 AD. Gorgets were carved from the penultimate whorl of the lightning whelk and were used as ornaments and trade goods by the Calusa.


This decorated hairpin was modeled after a deer bone hairpin discovered Hontoon Island site in Volusia County and was estimated to have been manufactured around 1200-1300 AD. Florida Indians ,including the Calusa, were known for their intricate hair decorations which may have been used as symbols to display status and authority. Or in this case, keep the hair out of your eyes.    

Decorated Turtle Carapace

In this instance the square “scute” of a marine turtle’s shell has been decorated with a carved pair of dolphins. This artifact may also have been used as a small mesh net gauge,used to set the mesh diameter when making nets. This artifact was discovered at the Key Marco site as well.

Painted Woodpecker

This painted board depicting a pileated woodpecker was discovered at the  Key Marco site. It is interesting to note that pileated woodpeckers are  often observed on the Mound House property. Wooden artifacts such as this one were discovered at the Key Marco site preserved in the anaerobic muck of an ancient pond. Archaeologists speculate that the wide variety of artifacts discovered in this muck layer may have been the result of a hurricane sweeping through the Calusa village.  

Monday, May 7, 2012

Moment of zen...


The archaeological record at Mound House shows us that long after the last Calusa had inhabited this location, this site was utilized by 18th and early 19th century Cuban fishermen as a “fishing rancho”, one of many common to the bays and coastal estuaries of southwest Florida and, as was typically the case, located on top of an old Calusa Mound. In contrast to the difficult and less productive deepwater fishing off the north coast of Cuba, the productive shallow water fishing found here made it worth the 200 hundred mile sail to the busy  port city of Havana where dried and salted fish were sold. As such, the fishing rancho was a seasonal base camp and in general, the fishing season ran from September into March with some fishermen and their families staying on all year. Many of these fisherfolk were of Spanish descent, while others were of Indian or Spanish- Indian descent, and were known as  “Spanish Indians”. When Spain ceded Florida to the United States in 1819, life changed irrevocably for these fishermen. During the Second Seminole War (1835-1842), the United States military, believing that these ranchos  were supplying and arming the Seminoles, forcibly ended these fishing operations. Several military leaders were certain that the Spanish Indians were actually Seminoles and had assisted in the war against the Americans. As such, the Indians of Southwest Florida were to be forcibly removed.

As with most things, the reality down here on the wild frontier may have been somewhat different as we see below:               

The following document contains excerpts from a story edited by James Covington


One of the best clues as to the background and life of the Cuban fishermen here in Southwest Florida and early relations between Cuba and the United States were discovered in the records of the Office of Indian Affairs at the National Archives in Washington D.C. This evidence was recorded in a petition from a group of fishermen to  the Secretary of War Joel  Poinsett.

“To the honorable Joel Poinsett, Secretary of War:

The memorial of the undersigned respectfully represents that your memorialists were located on the Gulf Coast of the peninsula of Florida as fishermen and seamen at the time of, and long prior to the cessation of the territory to the United States, that it has been a long established custom among the class to which your memorialists belong, and one which was recognized by the Spanish government at Havana as legal to intermarry with the Indian women of the country. Many of the children, offspring of these marriages, were baptized and educated there and recognized as legitimate by the authorities of that city and country. Some of them are now residing there in respectable situations and enjoying all the rights and priviledges of Spanish subjects.
Your memorialists further state that at the change of Flags they became lawful citizens of the United States by virtue of the provisions of the treaty and have since that period exercised the right of suffrage and all other priviledges and immunities of American citizens.

…This order which by a single blow has severed from them their families and blasted at once their happiness and all their prospects in life, your memorialists solemnly believe has been the result of deep and malignant misrepresentations and falsehood contrived by their enemies to wreak their vengeance upon those who refused to join them in the atrocities which they have perpetuated…
That having continued true and faithful to their allegiance and hold themselves at all time in readiness to serve the country in any manner in which their services could be required while those who sought to destroy them have spread ruin and desolation over it, they feel that they have just claims on the protection of the Government for themselves, their wives and children.

They therefore earnestly pray that they may at least be permitted to return to their homes when the Seminoles shall have been removed and the only shadow of a cause for their present position shall cease to exist, but if their prayer is denied, they earnestly entreat that they may be permitted to remove to some other country where heir families can be supported and protected from the vengeance of a people from whom forgiveness is rarely extended.”


Bonificio Crusado                           Jose Bromudos               Domingo Alvarez
Maximo Hernandez                      Manuel Benitez              Jose Suqones
Pedro Felis                                       Felipe Sevilla                     Iviculas Bara
Gabriel Ferrera                               Antonio Herrera             Felipe Orta
Gregorio Montes de Oca           Juan Castohima               Peter Weaver
Jose Rudriquez                              Juan Diego Morales       Antonio Carpechamo
Joaquin Caldel                               Juan Montes de Oca      Santos Domingues

A true copy

W.G. Ferrand
Lt. 4th Artillery

And so it was, that even way out here on the banks of an estuary in the middle of nowhere, tucked away between the gulf and the mangroves, our fishermen found themselves to be not only pawns in a game of international politics but enemies of the Seminole and the United States government .   

Not long after this letter was sent, it was reported in one newspaper account of the Second Seminole War that about 150 Spanish Indians had been removed from Florida.

Friday, May 4, 2012

Kayaking Lovers Key May 2012

Town of Fort Myers Beach Staff - Kayak Training Day May 4th, 2012